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Artery - A blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart.
Atherosclerosis - The build up of fats, cholesterol and plaque on the artery walls, which leads to narrowing or blockage in arteries.
Bile acids - A digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder that helps digest fats.
Cholesterol - A substance found in animal cells and body fluids that is involved in cell function.
Coronary heart disease - The narrowing of the blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart. Angina can be a symptom of coronary heart disease.
Diabetes type 2 - A chronic disease in which blood sugar levels are too high because the body can not use insulin effectively (a problem called insulin resistance).
Dyslipidemia - A general term for an imbalance in the types of fats (lipids) in the blood. High TG is a form of dyslipidemia.
Enzyme - A protein in cells that stimulates chemical reactions in the body.
Fredrickson’s Classification of Hyperlipidemia - A model used to identify dyslipidemias, based on high levels of total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TGs).
Heart attack - Damage to the heart muscle caused by a lack of blood supply to the heart for an extended time period.
HDL-C – HDL-C is often called the “good” cholesterol. HDL-C is carried from the blood vessels to the liver where the body can break it down. A high level of HDL-C may decrease your risk of having a heart attack or stroke, while a low level may increase your risk.
Hormones - A chemical produced by the body that travels the bloodstream delivering messages between organs and glands.
Hypertension - High blood pressure.
Hyperlipidemia - High levels of fats (lipids) in the blood. Insulin resistance-a condition in which blood glucose (sugar) levels rise because the body cannot use insulin effectively.
LDL-C - The “bad” cholesterol. LDL-C is the major transporter of cholesterol in the bloodstream. Too much LDL can cause build up on the artery walls, causing atherosclerosis, which may increase the risk of heart attack.
Lipid - A type of molecule that includes fats. Triglycerides and cholesterol are both lipids.
Monounsaturated fat - An unsaturated fat found in canola, olive, and peanut oils, and avocados.
Plaque - Deposits of fats, inflammatory cells, proteins, and calcium along the artery walls.
Polyunsaturated fat - An unsaturated fat found in safflower, sesame, and sunflower seeds, corn and soybeans, many nuts and seeds, and their oils.
Saturated fat - The main dietary cause of high blood cholesterol, saturated fat is found in foods from animals and some plants.
Transfatty acids - A type of unsaturated fatty acid found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and in very small amounts in animal products (beef, pork, lamb, butter, and milk). Also known as TFA or hydrogenated fats, they help food stay fresh longer. However, the body is not efficient in breaking down these fats and therefore they contribute to increasing the risk of atherosclerosis.
Triglycerides - The most common storage form for lipids in the body.
Reference: 1. Fredrickson DS, Lees RS. A system for phenotyping hyperlipidemia.
Circulation. 1965; 31(3):321-327.